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Metastatic Pattern of Spread of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine  adult

Introduction: islet cell tumor of the pancreas. Can be non-functioning or produce insulin (insulinoma), gastrin (gastrinoma), VIP (VIPoma), somatostatin (somatostatinoma). Insulinomas have the highest chance of being benign.

Prevalence: Very Rare Metastasis Frequency: Common

Ihse, et al. Neuroendocrine tumors metastatic to the liver

Br J Radiol. 2001 Nov;74(887):1065-70. PMID: 11709476

Primary Tumor:

 Characteristics Comments
Pancreas Hyperenhancing, Cystic, Solid can undergo cystic degeneration
radiology image: Hyperenhancing Pancreatic Mass

Known Metastatic Locations:

SiteFrequencyCharacteristics Comments
Liver CommonHyperenhancing, Arterially Enhancing overall, a very common site for metastasis (seen in about half of all pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors). However it is almost never seen from insulinomas and uncommon in VIPoma and gastrinoma.
radiology image: Centrally Necrotic Hyperenhancing Liver Lesion
Local Lymph Nodes Common
Bone UncommonMixed Lytic and Blastic, Blastic
radiology image: Sclerotic Vertebral Metastasis
Lung Parenchyma Very RareNodule
Mediastinum Very Rare
Peritoneum Very Rare
Brain Very Rare